<>windows And network basic commands

1,win+R open CMD Go to the command prompt

2, If the permission is not enough, use the administrator to run

<> one , Operation of directories and files

1, help

* use 【 command 】 /? view help cd /?
2,cd command Switch directory

* Switch to D disc cd /d d:\
* use /d To switch drives cd /d d:
* If the drive is not switched, you do not need to use it /d
* Directories are divided into relative paths and absolute paths
* Relative path ( Starting from the current )
* Absolute path ( Start with the drive letter )
* use …/ To return to the previous level
* . Represents the current directory
3,dir command Show file list
# Show hidden files dir /a:h
* sort dir /o
4,md command Used to create directories folder perhaps mkdir

* md 【 Directory name 】\ 【 Directory name 】 md test
5,rd command Delete command
# Also delete subdirectories ( Delete multilevel directory ) rd /s Direct use rd Only empty directories can be deleted # Will not be prompted to delete rd /q
6,move command move file

* For moving and renaming
* move 【path】 【path】 move test1 test2
7,copy command For copying files

*
copy 【path】【path】

*
use + To copy multiple files and merge them into one file

8,xcopy command duplicate catalog

* /s Replication and subdirectories Do not include empty directories
* /e Copy directories and subdirectories Include empty directory
9,del command Delete file

* del file name del a.txt
<> two , Text processing

1,type command Used to display the contents of a text file

* type 【 file name 】 # see file ( similar linux of cat) type a.txt
2, redirect

* “>” Write content to # example ipconfig > a.txt
3, findstr Search command Find string

* findstr file name
* /n set number findstr /n character string a.txt
**4, Pipe symbol | **

* Take the result of the previous execution as the operation object of the following command # |
<> three , Network related operations

1, to configure TCP/IP parameter

* IP address
* Subnet mask
* Default gateway
* DNS The server
2, eliminate DNS cache

* ipconfig /flushdns
3,netsh(network shell) Network configuration command
# Static configuration ip address , Subnet mask , Default gateway netsh interface ip set address "Ethernet0" static 192.168
.100.100255.255.255.0 192.168.100.1 # Automatic acquisition tcp/ip parameter netsh interface ip set
address"Ethernet0" dhcp # Configure static DNS netsh interface ip set dnsserver "Ethernet0"
static114.114.114.114 # Add alternate dns netsh interface ip add dnsserver "Ethernet0"
114.114.114.114 index=2 # Automatic acquisition dns netsh interface ip set dnsserver "Ethernet0"
dhcp
4, see TCP\IP parameter ipconfig

* Commonly used # see ip ipconfig # View all configurations ipconfig /all # release tcp/ip parameter ipconfig /release #
Reacquire tcp/ip parameter ipconfig /renew # Refresh DNS cache ipconfig /flushdns
5,ping command

* Detect communication problems # ping ip -n Number of messages sent -l Send message byte -t always ping -a return IP Host name of
6,tracert command

* Trace route tracert ip
7,route command

* Routing table used to operate the network # Print routing table route -4 print # Add route (32 Indicates the subnet mask ) route add target ip/32 gateway ip
routeadd 12.12.12.12/32 192.168.0.1 # Delete route route delete target ip
* 0.0.0.0 Represents any network
8,netstat command

* Display statistics TCP\IP network connections # View connection information netstat -anop tcp netstat -ano # View routing table netstat -r
<> four ,windows user management

*
Security identifier (SID)

* View users in the system # View users in the system net user # View safety signs (SID) whoami /user
* Use registry view # command regedit
【 be careful 】Windows Administrator user in SID yes 500, For ordinary users SID Is from 1000 start

* Get all users SID wmic useraccount get name,sid
1, user management

*
User addition, deletion and modification
# Clear text password to create account net user zhangsan 123456 /add # Ciphertext creation account net user wangwu /add * # delete user
net user zhangsan /del# Modify user password net user zhangsan 123
*
Hide users
# Create hidden user ( use $ Symbol ) net user zhaoliu$ 123456 /add Is to add after the user $ Symbol
2,windows Built in user account

* Associate with user
* administrators
* Ordinary users
* Guest user guest: Minimum authority , General default prohibition
* And windows Component Association
* system local system : Have the highest authority
* local service Local service : Permission lower than user group
* network service network service : Permissions are the same as user group
<> five ,Windows User group management

1, User group : A collection of users

2, Built in group account

* administrators: Administrator group
* guests: guests
* users: Standard user group , Group added by default after adding
3, Group management
# Create group net localgrooup tech /add # delete group net localgroup tech /del # Add users to groups net
localgroup tech haoge /add# Remove user from group net localgroup tech haoge /del
<> six ,NTFS jurisdiction

1, file system

* Windows
* Early use FAT16 or FAT32
* Currently used are NTFS
* ACL( Access Control List , Set permissions )
* EFS( Encrypted file system )
* Compression and disk quotas
* REFS file system
* Linux
* swap: Swap file system , Partition disk into memory
* ext4
* File system conversion # Format conversion command convert h:/fs:ntfs // h Indicates the drive letter
* Early FAT File system does not support more than 4GB Large file
2, file right

3, Folder permissions

4,NTFS rules of competency

*
Permission accumulation

* Accumulation of valid permissions assigned to users
*
Deny permission : Permission denied is greater than anything else

* When a permission conflict occurs , Denied permissions have the highest priority
*
Inherit permissions

* By default, it inherits the permission of its superior
*
special competencies

* Read permissions
* change permission
* Acquire ownership # To change, you must first have read permission
<> seven , Local security policy

summary : Some security policies for logging on to the computer

Open mode : management tool >> Local security policy

command :secpol.msc

【 be careful 】: Home edition does not have a local security policy

1, Account Strategy

*
Password policy

* Password complexity requirements : The default is on
* Minimum password length
* Password life
* Force password history
*
Account locking strategy

* First, open the account locking threshold # Administrators are not restricted by it
2, Local policy

* Audit strategy
* User permission assignment
* Security options
<> eight ,Windows File sharing

Sharing requirements : Use in LAN

1, share permission

* Right click – attribute – Turn on sharing – Full authority control
2,NTFS jurisdiction

3, Final access rights of users from the network

* Shared permissions and NTFS Intersection of permissions
4, Access sharing

* Access mode # First kind \\ip # Second \\ host name # Host name ipconfig see
* If you change the local security policy to enable guest login, you do not need to enter a password
* Open guest account
<> nine , Group policy application

1, concept

A collection of policies

2, Open mode
gpedit.msc
3, Refresh Group Policy
gpupdate /force
<> ten , Registry Foundation

summary : A database of all computer information

*
command
regedit
<> eleven , Basic concepts of computer network

1, LAN

* Wired LAN
* 802.3
* Wireless LAN
* 802.11
2, Mainstream network manufacturer equipment

* Cisco
* Huawei
* Xinhua III
3, Network security equipment manufacturer

* Deeply convinced
* Chianxin
* Qiming star
4, Network topology

* Star topology ( Double star topology is the most widely used topology in enterprises )
* High pressure at central node ( High performance equipment is required )
* Easy to implement
* Easy to expand
* Easy troubleshooting
* Network topology
* High reliability
* The cost is very high
<> twelve , Computer network reference model

1,OSI Seven layer reference model

* physical layer : Convert binary numbers into electrical and optical signals ( establish , maintain , Disconnect physical link ).
* data link layer : Establish logical connection , Hardware addressing , Error checking .
* network layer : Logical address addressing (ip address ), Realize the path selection between different networks .
* Transport layer : Defines the protocol port number for transmitting data , Flow control , Error checking .
* Session layer : establish , Administration , Abort session .
* Presentation layer : Representation of data , Encryption compression .
* application layer : Convert the original data into binary numbers that can be recognized by the computer .
2,TCP/IP( Transmission control protocol / Internet Protocol ) Five layer model

* physical layer
* data link layer
* network layer :IP
* ARP: Address resolution protocol
* RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
* ICMP: Internet control message protocol
* IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol
* Transport layer
* TCP( Transmission control protocol ): More stable and reliable transmission
* UDP( User datagram protocol ): High transmission efficiency
* application layer :HTTP HTTPS SSH TELNET DNS POP3 IMAP FTP
<> thirteen , Data encapsulation and de encapsulation

process

application layer ---- Transport layer ---- network layer ---- data link layer ---- physical layer

<> fourteen , Binary basis

1, Computer number system

* Number system : Counting method
* digit : The position of a numeric symbol in a number
* base : The number of digital symbols that can be used on a digit
* Position right : Size represented by digits
<> fifteen ,IP Address overview

IP address : Logical address , Can change

1,ip address

*
Used to identify a network interface in the network

*
A network coding method , Identify a node in the network

*
IP By address 32 Bit binary composition , To facilitate memory ,8 Bits as a group , Separated by dots , Convert to 10 Base system
192.168.18.22 11000000.10101000.00010010.00010110
2,ip Address composition

* Network part : Used to identify the scope of the network
* Host part : Used to identify a node in the network range
3,ip Classification of addresses (32 Bit binary composition )

*
public ip Address classification

*
A class : Before confirmation 8 Bit is network bit , behind 24 Bit is the host bit , with 0 start

* first 8 Bit range :0-127 because 0 Represents the local address 127 The beginning is used for circuit detection , Final scope 1-126 1.0.0.0-126.255.255.255
*
B class : Before confirmation 16 Bit is network bit , after 16 Bit is the host bit , And with 10 start

* Range :128.0-191.255
*
C class : Before confirmation 24 Bit is network bit , behind 8 Bit is the host bit , And with 110 start

* Range :192.0.0.0-223.255.255
*
D,E Is a special address

*
private ip Address classification

* A class :10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255
* B class :172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255
* C class :192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255
* Private addresses cannot be routed directly on the public network , Network address translation is required to convert the private network address into the public network address before accessing the public network content
<> sixteen , Subnet mask

concept : Used to determine ip Network part of address

have 32 Binary composition of bits , corresponding ip The network part of 1 express , For mainframe 0 express
# The network part and host part are obtained according to the subnet mask . # The first address of this network is the network address , The last address is the broadcast address #
use ip Address and subnet mask “ And ” Calculate the network address
*
default subnet mask

*
A:255.0.0.0 8 position

*
B:255.255.0.0 16 position

*
C:255.255.255.0 24 position

*
The network address represents a range , Cannot be used by host

*
Broadcast address , Represents all addresses of this network segment , Cannot be used by host

<> seventeen , Subnet Division

To facilitate management , Divide large networks into small networks

1, summary

* Use default subnet mask : Class address
* Use a non default subnet mask : Classless address
2, Subnet division principle

* Subnet bit Division : Add network part ( Borrow from host , The number of borrowed bits is called subnet bit )

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